Research and References
Factors Influencing Antioxidant Phytochemical Stability of Teas
Dissertation by Youngmok Kim
Dec. 2008 for PhD at Texas A&M University
Identifies polyphenolic compounds in three tea varieties (green tea, yaupon holly, and mamaki)
Mamaki is Pipturus_albidus, a Hawaiian nettle: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pipturus_albidus
Evaluates phytochemical compounds contribution to the teas' antioxidant capacity.
Discusses precipitates of caffeine, polyphenols, and protein complexes make hazy turbid teas, known as tea cream.
For more, see: Creaming in Black Tea, by Jobstl E., Fairclough JP, Davies AP, Williamson MP.
J. Agric. Food Chem. 2005, 53, 7997-8002
Polyphenols which are soluble in hot tea, precipitate upon cooling. Caffeine is caught up in the nanoclusters.
Yaupon literature review on pages 39-40.
Yaupon Holly Tea was prepared by drying in hot air (90° C) for 4 hrs, and then infused with hot water (90° C) for ten minutes before cooling to 25° C and filtering solids and precipitates.
This tea was neutralized to ph7 and fractionated on a C18 column.
10% and 100% methanol eluted fractions were collected, and the unbound fraction discarded.
Fractions were analyzed by HPLC/ESI/MS to identify compounds.
Yaupon LC/ESI/MS results pp. 68-73, and HPLC fractions for yaupon pp.80-83.
Youngmok identifies these compounds in Yaupon Holly Tea:
Fitoterapia. 2011 Jun;82(4):557-69. Epub 2011 Jan 22. Flavonol-rich fractions of yaupon holly leaves (Ilex vomitoria, Aquifoliaceae) induce microRNA-146a and have anti-inflammatory and chemopreventive effects in intestinal myofibroblast CCD-18Co cells. Noratto GD, Kim Y, Talcott ST, Mertens-Talcott SU. Source Department of Nutrition and Food Science Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843, USA.
Abstract Polyphenolics extracted from yaupon holly (Ilex vomitoria, Aquifoliaceae) (YH) leaves were investigated in human colon cells for their chemopreventive and anti-inflammatory activities. An activity-guided fractionation allowed the selection of YH flavonol-rich fraction due to its preferential inhibition of HT-29 colon cancer viability over the normal CCD-18Co colon cells. Quercetin and kaempferol 3-rutinosides, main components identified in this fraction, protected CCD-18Co cells against reactive oxidative species (ROS) in part due to increased activity of antioxidant enzymes. In addition, up-regulation of microRNA-146a (miR-146a) known as a negative regulator of pro-inflammatory NF-κB activation was the underlying molecular mechanism that protected CCD-18Co from inflammation.
Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
PMID: 21262328 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Full length article is available here:
from Materials and Methods:
Yaupon leaves were dried 120F in a convection oven before storage in freezer.
Native holly can provide caffeinated, antioxidant-rich beverage...
University of Florida News
Francis E. "Jack" Putz: Yaupon tea has a bad name
Gainesville Sun, Apr 8, 2010
Ilex vomitoria: An overlooked North American caffeine source.
Palumbo*, M. J., S.T. Talcott, and F.E. Putz. 2009.
Economic Botany 63: 130-137.
Scientific names matter to marketability:
A taste test of infusions of a native Florida holly (Ilex vomitoria) and Yerba Mate (Ilex paraguensis)
Alisha E. Wainwright* and Francis E. Putz. Department of Biology, University of Florida, Gainesville.
J Undergrad Chem 1:47–51
Fuller HM, Arnold RI, Murphy MK (2002) [Dr. Maureen Kendrick Murphy, Huntingdon College]
Using chemistry to understand culture: why did native Americans vomit after drinking yaupon tea?
Black Drink: A Native American Tea
Edited by Charles M. Hudson, 1979
This is the primary source of collected ethnobotanical information on Yaupon.
Introduction - Charles M. Hudson
Charles M. Hudson - Professor emeritus at University of Georgia, Athens
Research interests: Ethnohistory, Indians of U.S. Southeast; southeastern North America
The Botany of Yaupon - Shiu Ying Hu
Shiu Ying Hu - Botanist, Emeritus of the Harvard University Herbaria
General Interests: Research on genera and families of horticultural interest, especially on plants of Chinese origin; field survey of the vegetation of Hong Kong (resulting in collections of 17,000 sets of specimens); economic plants of China, especially those of medicinal use and sources of food and tea.
The Beloved Tree: Ilex vomitoria among the Indians of the Southeast and Adjacent Regions - William L. Merrill
William L. Merrill is a curator of North American ethnology in the Department of Anthropology at the Smithsonian Institution's National Museum of Natural History.
Also wrote: Raramuri Souls: Knowledge and Social Process in Northern Mexico
Origins and Prehistoric Distributions of Black Drink and the Ceremonial Shell Drinking Cup - Jerald T. Milanich
Jerald T. Milanich - Curator Emeritus in Archaeology, Florida Museum of Natural History, Univ. of Florida, Gainesville.
Research Interests: Eastern United States archaeology; precolumbian Southeastern U.S. native peoples; Colonial period native American-European/Anglo relations in the America.
The Function of Black Drink among the Creeks - Charles H. Fairbanks
Black Drink and Other Caffeine-containing Beverages among Non-Indians - William C. Sturtevant
James H.Howard reviews Black Drink in American Indian Quarterly, 1979, Aug., Vol. 5, #3, pp. 276-281
Discusses the social and ceremonial roles of Yaupon Black Drink, and the use of other purifying herbs in Green Corn Busks (before and after Indian Removal) with specific notes from Swanton. Agrees that the vomiting was not medically induced by emitic herbs, but was a learned skill; regurgitation was ritual purging for purity.
Travels of William Bartrom, first published in 1791.
Edited by Mark Van Doren, 1928, pp. 357-359
Describes a large Cassine, Tobacco ritual of males only. Does not mention vomiting.
Google Books alludes to an Irish edition (also p. 357) of Bartrom's Travels in which:
"[Bartrom says] that his Cassine Yapon is the Ilex vomitoria of Aiton."
ILEX VOMITORIA AS A NATIVE SOURCE OF CAFFEINE.
Frederick B. Power, Victor K. Chesnut
J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1919, 41 (8), pp 1307–1312
Yaupon, Ilex Vomitoria, Native American "Black Drink"
Nature's Pharmacy: Ancient Knowledge, Modern Medicine
University of Iowa, Hospital and Clinics
Yaupon drink was popular among Native Americans
SMN Archives/Mountain Voices
Mountain Voices • 9/26/01, George Ellison
Cherokee Plants their uses - a 400 year history
Paul B. Hamel & Mary U. Chiltoskey, 1975, p. 62
Yaupon, southern; cassine dahoon
ILEX VOMITORIA, I. CASSINE
"Used for dropsy and gravel; 'black drink' tea causes sweating which purifies physically and morally; used to evoke ecstasies; 'No one is allowed to drink it in council unless he has proved himself a brave warrior.' (James Adair)"
Adair's History of the American Indians
Eastern/Central Medicinal Plants and Herbs
Peterson Field Guides, 2000, 2nd Ed., p. 260
Steven Foster and James A. Duke
Yaupon Holly "ceremonial cleansing beverage"
"presence of caffeine is disputed." -???
A Blog which includes:
JOHN LAWSON'S ACCOUNT OF YAUPON IN CAROLINA
Yerba Mate, Ilex paraguariensis
Tropical Plant Database
J Ethnopharmacol, 2011 Jul 14;136(3):378-84.
Recent advances on Ilex paraguariensis research: minireview.
Bracesco N, Sanchez AG, Contreras V, Menini T, Gugliucci A.
Lab Radiobiología Dpt. Biofísica, Facultades de Medicina y Ciencias, University de la República, Uruguay
Resources of the Southern Fields and Forests, Medical, Economical, and Agricultural.
Being also a Medical Botany of the Confederate States; with Practical Information on the Useful Properties of
the Trees, Plants, and Shrubs. Porcher, Francis Peyre, 1825-1895
Pages 389 - 395 discuss Hollies.
Ilex cassina, Mich. Ilex vomitoria, L. and Ait.
Yaupon; cassina; emetic-holly; grows near the seacoast; Newbern. Fl. March.
Mér. and de L. Dict. de M. Méd. iii, 591; see I. vomitoria. Linn. Veg. Mat. Med.; U. S. Disp. 1263, App.; Griffith, Med. Bot.; Ell. Sk. of Bot. of South Carolina, ii, 682. The leaves act as a powerful diuretic, and are employed in calculous, nephritic diseases, diabetes, gout, and small-pox. This plant is said also to act as a mild emetic. (Mér. and de L.) The Indians used the cold infusion, which was called the black drink, and which was said to enliven them, in the place of opium. The Creeks employed it, according to Elliott, at the opening of their councils, sending to the sea-coast for a supply. They considered it one of their most powerful diuretics. (Bart. Coll. 38.) The inhabitants of North Carolina purify brackish water by boiling in it Cassina leaves.
In North and South Carolina much use is made of the leaves of cassina for making tea. I would refer the reader to the Ceanothus Americana, New Jersey tea tree. The leaves of the common holly (Ilex opaca) are also recommended by some as a substitute for tea; and I would call Page 394 attention to the fact that the famous plant used so extensively in Paraguay, Maté or Paraguay tea, is an Ilex (I. Paraguaiensis, plants of which have been introduced by Lieut. Page, and distributed. See a notice of it in Patent Office Reports, 1854, p. 34, and 1859, p. 15. Maté is universally drunk in many of the South American States, and almost fabulous properties are attributed to it. "It is unquestionably aperient and diuretic, and produces effects very similar to opium. * * * Like that drug, however, it excites the torpid and languid, while it calms the restless and induces sleep." I have little doubt but that great resemblance does exist between this and the kindred plant, the cassina, from which also was prepared a "black drink," which was used by the Indians of North America in their ceremonials. The mode of preparation may be lost to us.
The Yaupon is sometimes referred to as I. vomitoria. The Indians drank it very strong, and in copious draughts, at a certain period of the year, in order to purify themselves. It acted as an emetic. The Maté of Paraguay is not identical, says a recent writer, with our I. cassina. Lawson, in his account of this plant, in his Travels in Carolina (pp. 90, 91, London, 1709), celebrates the virtues of the tea, and gives a particular account of the mode of preparing it. "This plant (the Yaupon, called by the South Carolina Indians Cassina), is the Indian tea, used and approved by all the savages on the coast of Carolina, and from them sent to the westward Indians, and sold at a considerable price." "The savages of Carolina bore this tea in veneration above all the plants they are acquainted withal," p. 221. "As for purgings and emetics they never apply themselves to, unless in drinking vast quantities of their Yaupon or tea, and vomiting it up again, as clear as they drink it." Croom, in quoting the above, adds that in North Carolina it is still esteemed a useful diaphoretic. Notes to his Catalogue, p. 45, referred to as I. cassina, of Walter.
The preparation of Maté is very simple. It can be gathered during the whole year. It is collected in the woods--"a process of kiln-drying is resorted to upon the spot, and Page 395 afterward the branches and leaves are transported to some rude mill and powdered in mortars. The substance, after this operation, is almost a powder, though small stems, denuded of their bark, are always permitted to remain." A small quantity of the leaf, either with or without sugar, is placed in a common bowl, upon which cold water is poured; after standing a short time, boiling water is added, and it is at once ready for use. It must be imbibed through a tube on account of the particles of leaf and stem which float upon the surface of the liquid. The plant is not cultivated. See, also, Ceanothus and Thea viridis.
Ilex dahoon, Walt. Also called cassina. Grows in swamps; it is said to possess properties similar to those of the I. cassina.
Ilex myrtifolia, Walt. Grows around ponds, in flat, pine barrens, forty miles from Charleston; Newbern.
Dr. Joseph Johnson, of Charleston, informs me that this is used to some extent in domestic practice in South Carolina, as a diuretic in dropsy.
Castanea - The Journal of the Southern Appalachian Botanical Club
Vol. 28, June, 1963, No. 2
The "Cassina" and the "Dahoon" by Gabriel Edwin
says Dahoon holly was named Ilex cassine,
while Cassine Holly was named Ilex vomitoria
Shiu Ying Hu discusses in great detail these naming confusions in The Botany of Yaupon in Black Drink. See pages 22-25.
Briefly, I.cassine Walter is I.vomitoria Aiton, and I.cassine Linnaeus is the Dahoon holly.
He lists the following vernacular names for Ilex vomitoria Ait.:
American tea plant, Apalachine, Casino-berry, Cassena, Cassena tree, Cassiana, Cassina, Cassine, Cassines, Cassio-berry, Christmas-berry tree, Coon berry, Emetic holly, Evergreen cassena, Evergreen cassine, South-Sea tree, Tree cassena, Yapon, Yaupon, Yopon, Youpon.
Thomas Walter wrote Flora Caroliniana (1788)
The Flora Caroliniana
Short video about Yaupon Holly
Long video Yaupon Holly - Southern Woodsman Tea